2009/6/2

是大詩人嗎?





(Polly Ho)


智利詩人聶魯達(Pablo Neruda, 1904-1973)被公認為愛情詩人,他自己認為他先是一位愛情詩人,後是人民詩人,可見愛情是他不可欠缺的靈感泉源。


聶魯達是一位大詩人嗎?香港翻譯家黄燦然在評論集《在兩大傳統的陰影下》談到大詩人的定義,談到一位圓滿的詩人形象具備五個條件,一、詩人寫到生命最後一刻,二、作品越寫越好,三、語言風格和題材多變,四、具備高度的人格修養,五、成為智者。聶魯達是一位多產的詩人,他早在十多歲就開始寫詩,十九歲出版了第一本詩集《霞光之書》(Book of Twilight, 1923)。一年後出版成名作,亦是流傳最廣,最為人熟悉,最受人喜愛的詩集《二十首情詩和一首絕望的歌》(Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair, 1924)。他的第三本詩集《大地上的居所》(Residence on Earth, 1933)是他經歴的第一次風格轉變,當時他擔任駐仰光領事,經歴語言隔閡和文化差距,以使他當時寫的詩灰暗孤獨。《一般之歌》(Canto General, 1950)被學者認為是他最重要的詩集,要認識聶魯達,不能不讀的詩集,《一般之歌》是一本龐大的史詩,三百首詩組成,一萬五千行,分十五個章節,內容涵蓋整個美洲:美洲的草木鳥獸、古老文化、地理環境等等。後來的《元素集》(Elemental Odes, 1954)是他的另一個風格和語言的轉點,他用簡單清新的文字寫最日常最基本最普通的東西,像番茄、字典、腳踏車,這印證他在領諾貝爾文學獎說過的一句話:「最好的詩人就是給我們日常麵包的詩人。」聶魯達在晚年時期,回歸愛情,回歸大自然,回歸自己,其中《船長的詩》(Captain’s Verses, 1952) 和《一百首愛的十四行詩》(One Hundred Love Sonnets, 1959)是受他第三位妻子瑪提爾德‧烏魯齊雅(Matilde Urrutia)的啟發,這位經歴西班牙內戰和流亡的詩人終於找到他人生的真愛,他承認「生命中只有兩件事物不可或缺─詩歌與愛情」。





是次詩會我們用三種語言讀了聶魯達的詩歌:西班牙文、英文和中文(包括粵語和國語)。Amai-Hong用標準的西班牙文把每個字都諗出來,大家聽得很陶醉,Benjamin 忍不住說:「很法式,很浪漫!」Paul表示有想學習西班牙文的衝動,的確,原文的聶魯達詩歌隔行押韻,很有節奏韻味,像歌一樣動聽。除了不同語言有不同味道,翻譯的版本也令聶魯達詩歌有不同的味道,為此,其中一首I Like for You to be Still,我特意選了李宗榮和黄燦然的版本,讀完之後,很多人表示喜歡黄燦然的版本,Adair和Paul表示後一個版本讀起來很有感覺,但他們說不出為什麼。






詩會最後十分鐘,Adrian和Benjamin帶來他們自己寫的詩,Adrian表示他視寫詩為一種挑戰,他選一個字,從不同的角度去寫。Benjamin本身是一位作家,他那首Poetry Factory別具新穎,令人象難忘。




大家討論聶魯達是不是一位大詩人,各具不同的意見,有的認為詩不能量化,不是越寫得多越好,那麼質量怎樣計算?Paul認為時間是計算質量的一個標準,最好的詩能經歴時間的洗禮,留下來。Amai-Hong告訴我們,她在學校會讀聶魯達的詩,同學們都很喜歡的。聶魯達是不是大詩人,答案不就在眼前了嗎?


(photos by Paul Wan)

8 則留言:

匿名 提到...

major poet = perfect poet?

u mixed up these 2 concepts.
by the way, mr Wong Chan-yin's criteria are so 19-century moralist.

for how many yrs had Rimbaud written poems?

how sage or moral the modernist poets are?

pls don't preach grand narratives any more!

is Neruda a great poet?

we chinese have better be modest
if we can tell the difference between Neruda & Gongora.

should we respect the spanish speakers'
(especially the Latino-americans') views?
have u consulted the catholic reading public?

victor FOK
frenchmarkets@gmail.com

匿名 提到...

mr Wong Chan-yin (黄燦然), a very respectable writer

mr wong speaks the truth
--talks what he knows &
admits what he doesn't know;
& stands up to those
who have power & diffuse prejudice.

an example: the poet Beidao (北島) has no spanish
& critisize Dai Wangshu's translation of Federico Garcia Lorca.

mr wong stands up for Dai
see Reading (讀書) monthly, beijing, 2006, nos 7-8
available at hk central library

victor FOK
frenchmarkets@gmail.com

匿名 提到...

the modern poetry began w/ Baudelaire's Les fleurs du Mal


this is a book mainly written by a young man.

see Jacques Dupont's intro to his edn of Les fleurs du Mal (in french),
or FW Leaky: Baudelaire: Les fleurs du Mal (in english)
--the latter available at hku main library

victor FOK
frenchmarkets@gmail.com

匿名 提到...

Baudelaire is a great poet;
victor Hugo is a great man.

how did Baudelaire be canonized
(i e, considered a great poet)?

a matter of institution

see cambridge companion to Baudelaire
pp xiii-xiv; 213-214.
--available at hk central library

victor FOK
frenchmarkets@gmail.com

匿名 提到...

chinese Catholics misread Hugo

probably the novel
notre-dame de paris

--mr huang hao: Faith
a documentary film (MFA thesis, hkbu)

u can contact him at
9270 1011
huanghao_0109@yahoo.com/cn

victor FOK
frenchmarkets@gmail.com

匿名 提到...

Paul Celan NOT the most important Poetof German language in the Post-1945 Era

--Wolfgang Emmerich* et al:
A History of German Literature. (metzlersche 1989; Routledge 1993)

* author of 台灣傾向出版社出版的《策蘭傳》

see p 679 of the history:

'Gottfried Benn & Paul Celan may be specified as 2 major exponents of poetry who made a lasting impact on the German lyric scene after WW2. It should not be overlooked , however, that during the same period, the 1950s, a modern literary trend was also beginning to assert itself, w/ an unmistakable form of expression of its own.'

see also
the Cambridge History of German Literature (1997).

'In the 1960s, the hermetic poetry of Benn or Celan [...] now in turn lost their appeal' (p 474)

both bks available at HK central library.

victor FOK (霍偉雄)
frenchmarkets@gmail.com

chanpakfung 提到...

We do not need labels. Just let
culture live and go.

oswald
chanpakfung@gmail.com

匿名 提到...

APPRECIATION or JUDGMENT?

i beg your pardon 1st;
i've made many spelling/ grammatical mistakes
that put a haze on my ideas.
--i've difficulties in typing Chinese.

http://en.wikipedia.org/ makes 2 points:

1 aesthetics: "critical reflection on art, culture and nature."

2 Aesthetics studies new ways of seeing and of perceiving the world.

--http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesthetics#cite_note-1

"critical reflection"
is necessary for
'new ways of seeing and of perceiving the world.'

one has the right to prefer
APPRECIATION to JUDGMENT,
& not to GO FURTHER.

After i told the participants
of the poetry forum
that the 輦 in 曹植's 輕輦隨風移
is pronounced as lian in Cantonese & nian in Mandarin,
Ms Ho told them it should
be pronounced otherwise.

i did not argue.
back to the basic: i.e.
the criteria 1 socio-linguistics;
2 traditional studies of chinese
dialects & historical phonology.

no basis, no judgment.

victor FOK
frenchmarkets@gmail.com